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Difficult to find Computer Tips and Solutions for Windows Servers, 10, 8, 7 and XP

Disclaimer: The information contained here is presented "as is". Every effort has been made to insure these Tips work as stated. I assume no responsibility for your use of this information.

Depending upon your computer configuration, skill level, accurate typing abilities, and troubleshooting skills these advanced techniques could bring a smile to your face or possibly spell the end for your data, network, inheritance, and job should things go wrong. Having said that, I refer back to this collection infrequently for those tasks not normally performed on a weekly basis, and am glad they are here. May the force be with you.

Press Ctrl F on your web browser to search and quickly find your subject.

If you have a solution you would like to contribute to this list, please send it along using the Contact Us form at the bottom of this page.

Added in date order from year 2001 forward, Current Windows O/S specific tips are near the bottom

Table of Contents:

1. Browser HiJacking Notes

2. Enable File Sharing in Windows 7 and XP

3. Reinstalling TCP/IP in XP

4. Drive Letter/Path Sharing

5. Printer Sharing

6. DNS Name Servers

7. Administrative Shares

8. Preventing Browser HiJacking, Modifying Local Machine Zone

9. List of Net Commands

10. Possible Script to run for mappings

11. Internet Time Update For Win2k and WinXP

12. Installing Win2k after WinXP, and being able to boot up Both O/S's

13. Starting XP O/S install in IDE mode, then changing to AHCI

14. Creating Batch file for backing up files out of Windows 7

15. File Sharing in Windows 7

16. Setting up auto login in Windows 7 with password, or blank password for network logon.

17. Mapping Drives in Windows 7

18. Slow network in Windows 7/Vista Fix

19. How to create a 2nd set of HP recovery DVD's

20. Favicon Format

21. Two Ways to Recover a Bricked Linksys WRT54G/GL Router

22. Backup Windows 7, 8, Server 2003, Server 2008 Files Using Robocopy with batch file

23. Speed up Windows 7 Boot Time by 100% to 300%

24. Fix Windows Explorer Slow to List Files inside Folders

25. Add back the Start Menu and Disable the Windows 8 Metro Interface with 1 Program

26. Add a shortcut on Windows 8 desktop to get you back to Metro Apps Screen

27. Add a shortcut on Windows 8 Desktop that allows you to Shut Down your Computer

28. Remove Windows 8 Lockscreen

29. Add God Mode to Windows 7 and 8

30. Transferring Outlook Express Emails and Account Settings to Outlook

31. IE10 in Windows 8 doesn't work with Javascript web pages

32. How to remove the FBI Fake Ransomware Virus and other Spywear, Malware and Ransomware in general

33. Remove Recent Document History Registry Edit for Windows 7

34. Add the Quick Launch Bar in Windows 7

35. Convert Sony Camcorder .MTS Files to DVS's, for iPhones and Web Pages

36. Use gpedit.msc in run to make Security Changes to Windows 7

37. Enable Administrator Account in Windows 7

38. Install Enterprise Google Chrome and Firefox ESR under Program Files

39. Locking Down a Computer to Prevent Infection by Cryptolocker

40. How to Exclude Certain Files/Folders from VSS

41. Windows 7 Tips from Technet

42. Windows 7 x64 SP1 Direct Download Link

43. How to Creat OpenVPN Certificates and Keys in Windows 7,8&10...A Few Secrets the Linux Geeks leave out.

44. How to Delete the hidden Content.IE5 Files in Vista

45. Add Group Policy Editor to Windows 7 or 8 Home Premium

46. How to Remove Files that Administrator Cannot Delete

47. Fix Eudora Slow or Hangs on Initial SSL Login or Eudora starts losing it's installed certificates and won't pop incoming SSL email

48. Disable Hibernation in Windows 7

49. Troubleshoot Hang at Welcome Screen or Black Screen after Windows 7 Login

50. Solutions for strange error messages from Dreamweaver CS3 - CS6

51. Command line options for the Google Chrome Web Browser to remove use of insecure cipher RC4, add Incognito Mode, and keep Chrome's cache size small.

52. How to check your browser for insecure cipher suites and create a blacklist to prevent Chrome from using them.

53. Modify MDT 2013 to allow using your GPO Packs for Windows 8 and Server 2012.

54. Change any Windows version (XP, 7, 8, 8.1, 10, etc) install ISO disk image into a universal install disc that prompts the user to choose the install edition (home premium, pro, ultimate etc.) at startup.

55. Microsoft Software Recovery Page - Iso Image Files for O/S Repair or Re-Installations.

56. Server 2008R2 Loses Gateway IP Address on Every Reboot.

57. All Windows Domain Computers Have the Wrong Time / Configure Microsoft Server 2008R2 to Update to Correct Time / Server NTP Time Sync Not Working.

58. Check If Your Computer Has Secret Outgoing Connections.

59. Test your password strength against a database of over 7 trillion password hashes.

60. How to use to send a Recall Campaign.

61. A Fix for Windows 7 Weather Gadget - Cannot Connect to Server.

62. Change Google Chrome Bookmark Manager back to the one that works.

63. Use DNSCrypt to prevent your DNS requests from being hijacked.

64. How to Permanently Fix the Windows 7 Weather Gadget Update Problem.

65. How to send an email notification from Windows Task Scheduler using an external SMTP mail server such as

66. How to fix when you left click with mouse and it selects multiple items when only one was selected.

67. Remove Updates to Windows 7, Windows 8.x &Windows Server 2008R2 That Install Microsoft Telemetry, Keyloggers and Spyware.

68. Software that removes Windows 10 Keyloggers, Spyware and Monitoring Installed by Microsoft.

69. Firefox Open New Link in Same Window

70. Disable Get Windows 10 Update By Modifying The Registry

71. Transfer All Outlook Files and Settings to Another Computer

1. Browser HiJacking Notes

You may have to alternate between regular boot and F8-Safe Mode to clear out spyware

Go to Windows, \System and \System32 directories, look for latest dates of files being created.

Go to Hosts file in system32\drivers\etc and look for entries.

Run Processxp and then start Internet Explorer and look for proc running right underneath ie.

use autoruns to find startup files added to registry.

Delete all new files under windows that look suspicious, kill process, remove from run.

Use Adaware SE or Webroot Spy Sweeper or Giant Software or Counter Spy,and HiJack This
in safe mode after deleting all. Good Luck, may the force always be with you.

2. Enable File Sharing in Windows 7, XP

To display the Security tab
Open Folder Options in Control Panel.

On the View tab, under Advanced settings, clear Use simple file sharing [Recommended].

Install Netbeui for a simple solution to share printers and files.

3. Reinstalling TCP/IP in XP

The NetShell utility (netsh) is a command-line scripting interface for configuring and monitoring Windows XP networking. This tool provides an interactive network shell interface to the user.

In Windows XP, a reset command is available in the IP context of the NetShell utility. When you run the reset command, it rewrites pertinent registry keys that are used by the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) stack to reach the same result as the removal and the reinstallation of the protocol.


Command usage

netsh int ip reset [log_file_name]

To run the command successfully, you must specify a file name for the log where actions that are taken by netsh will be recorded. For example, at a command prompt, type either of the samples that are listed in the "Command samples" section. The TCP/IP stack will then be reset on a system, and the actions that were taken will be recorded in the log file, Resetlog.txt. The first sample creates the log file in the current directory, while the second sample creates a path where the log will reside. In either case, where the specified log file already exists, the new log will be appended to the end of the existing file.

Warning Programs that access or monitor the Internet such as antivirus, firewall or proxy clients may be negatively affected when you run the netsh winsock reset command. If you have a program that no longer functions correctly after you use this resolution, reinstall the program to restore functionality.

Command samples

netsh int ip reset resetlog.txt
netsh int ip reset c:\resetlog.txt

4. Drive Letter/Path Sharing

net use DriveLetter1: /delete /y

net use DriveLetter1: \\Server\Share1$

net use DriveLetter2: /delete /y

net use DriveLetter2: \\Server\Share2$

with the NET USE - command on Windows 2000, XP, 2003, 7, 2008, 2012, 8 systems in a Command-Prompt Window:
NET USE <drive>: \\<server>\<share>\<path>

net use x: \\computername or computerIPaddress\sharename /persistant:y may not always work

5. Printer Sharing

add these to batch file and put in registry start up or start menu startup for connectivity each time.

net use \\computeripaddress\printersharename

net use \\computername\printersharename

In XP and back only, install netbeui on both computers and try again

6. DNS Name Servers


Verizon (Level3) Nameservers

Google Nameservers

SpeakEasy Nameservers

ORSC Public Access DNS Nameservers

Sprintlink General DNS


PUBLC ORSC (PS0.NS2.VRX.NET) - Atlanta, Ga ( - Nederlands (NS1.QUASAR.NET) - Orlando, FL, USA (ASLAN.OPEN-RSC.ORG) - Detroit, MI, USA

7. Administrative Shares

Using Administrative Shares

By default, each Windows 2003, 2008, 2012 computer creates hidden shares to each drive letter (using the drive letter followed by the $ sign). If you are in a networked environment you can gain access to another computer's drives and even run programs remotely by using UNC at the run command. For example, you can run User Manager for domains on your PDC from a user's machine with "\\SERVERNAME\C$\WINNT\system32\USRMGR.EXE." This requires administrative rights.

Special Instructions for Using Administrative Shares in Windows 7, 8.

Turn on File and Printer sharing under the Network and Sharing.

Open regedit and find HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System.

Right-click in the right side and select New > DWORD (32-bit) Value.

Create LocalAccountTokenFilterPolicy.

Change value to 1.

Enable File and Printer Sharing in Firewall.

Be sure you are not using Homegroup for Networking.

8. Preventing Browser HiJacking, Modifying Local Machine Zone

Click Start, Run, type regedit and click OK. In the HKEY_CURRENT_USER folder, find the following Registry key:
SOFTWARE \ Microsoft \ Windows \ CurrentVersion \ Internet Settings \ Zones \ 0

In that key, the Flags value, which is a DWORD, controls whether or not the Local Machine Zone is visible in IE's Security tab. Set the data value to 47 (in hexadecimal) to display the zone or 21 (in hexadecimal) to hide it.

Microsoft's description of this procedure is in KB article 315933.

After you've made the change, you can then apply to the Local Machine Zone the settings as described below.

Click the Custom Level button. In the dialog box that appears, change the following settings to the values shown:

ActiveX controls and plug-ins
• Download signed ActiveX controls: Disable
• Download unsigned ActiveX controls: Disable
• Initialize and script ActiveX controls not marked as safe: Disable
• Run ActiveX controls and plug-ins: Disable ** This may need to be enabled, try disable first
• Script ActiveX controls marked safe for scripting: Disable

• Font Download: Disable

Microsoft VM
• Java permissions: High Safety

• Allow META REFRESH: Disable
• Display mixed content: Disable
• Drag and drop or copy and paste files: Enable **Disable in WinXP
• Installation of desktop items: Disable
• Launching programs and files in an IFRAME: Disable
• Navigate sub-frames across different domains: Disable
• Software channel permissions: High Safety
• Userdata persistence: Disable

• Active scripting: Disable
• Allow paste operations via script: Disable
• Scripting of Java applets: Disable

User Authentication
• Logon: Prompt for username and password

9. List of Net Commands

Display a local share
NET SHARE sharename

Display a list of computers in the current domain.

To see a list of shares on a remote computer
NET VIEW \\ComputerName

To see a list of all shares in the domain:

To see a list of shares on a different domain
NET VIEW /DOMAIN:domainname

To see a list of shares on a remote Netware computer
NET VIEW /NETWORK:NW [\\ComputerName]

Create a new local file share
NET SHARE sharename=drive:path /REMARK:"text" [/CACHE:Manual | Automatic | No ]

Limit the number of users who can connect to a share
NET SHARE sharename /USERS:number /REMARK:"text"

Remove any limit on the number of users who can connect to a share

Delete a share
NET SHARE {sharename | devicename | drive:path} /DELETE

Delete all shares that apply to a given device
NET SHARE devicename /DELETE
In this case the devicename can be a printer (Lpt1) or a pathname (C:\Docs\)

Join a file share (Drive MAP)
NET USE [driveletter:] \\ComputerName\ShareName /PERSISTENT:YES

Join a file share (Drive MAP) - Win 2K / XP
NET USE [driveletter:] \\ComputerName\ShareName\folder1\folder2 /PERSISTENT:YES

Join a file share (Drive MAP) - with a "long" share name
NET USE [driveletter:] "\\ComputerName\ShareName"

Join a password protected file share (Drive MAP)
NET USE [driveletter:] \\ComputerName\ShareName[\volume] [password | *] [/USER:[domainname\]username] [/PERSISTENT:YES]

In the above command /USER can also be specified as:
[/USER:[dotted domain name\]username]
[/USER:[username@dotted domain name]

Join a file share (Drive MAP) and wait before continuing
START /wait NET USE [driveletter:] \\ComputerName\ShareName

Join a Printer Share
NET USE [LPTx:] \\ComputerName\printer_share /PERSISTENT:YES

Join a Printer Share - with a "long" share name
NET USE [LPTx:] "\\ComputerName\printer_share"

Connect a user to their HOME directory
NET USE [devicename | *] [password | *]] [/HOME]

Disconnect from a share
NET USE [driveletter:] /DELETE

Change the default connection type

Display all the open shared files on a server and the lock-id

Close a shared file (disconnect other users and remove file locks)

List all sessions connected to this machine

List sessions from a given machine
NET SESSION \\ComputerName

Disconnect all sessions connected to this machine

Disconnect all sessions connected to this machine (without any prompts)

Disconnect sessions from a given machine

NET SESSION displays incoming connections only, in other words it must be run on the machine that is acting as the server.

NET USE command can map a network printer to an LPT port (for DOS type applications that print to a port.) but this does not add the printer to Control Panel - Printers.

By default Mapped drives, have a 15 minute idle session timeout, you can modify this timeout with the NET CONFIG command. This timeout affects NT/2K/XP but is visible in the XP GUI.

To create file shares the SERVER service must be running, which in turn requires 'File and Print Sharing' to be installed.

10. Possible Script to run for mappings

@echo off
net use e: /delete
net use f: /delete
net use e: /home
net use f: \\server1\public
However, the xp machines work fine with this batch file (and the win98 machines do not):

@echo off
net use e: /home /persistent:no
net use f: \\server1\public /persistent:no
I think I found the solution, I just have to detect which o/s and then branch to that o/s specific part of the script, something like this :

@echo off
Rem Branched startup script for Kixtart.
Rem Windows XP drops all parameters after EXE if %0 is used.
Rem %0\..\ is only required for Windows 95, 98, and Me.
Rem Detect OS (NT or other)
if (%OS%) == (Windows_NT) goto NT_XP

%0\..\kix32.exe myscript.scr
goto end

kix32.exe myscript.scr

11. Change Internet Time Update Interval For Windows 2000, XP, 7, 8

- - - - - For Windows 2000 Pro - - - - - -

Go to Control Panel, (Win2k)Administrative Tools, Services.
Find Windows Time, open up and set to Started, and Automatic.

Open Command Prompt (Dos Window)
at the prompt type: net time /

To check that you've done it properly at the prompt type: net time /querysntp
and it should say The Current SNTP Value is: or something similar

- - - - - For Windows 2000, XP, 7, 8 - - - - - - -

open regedit in run

go to \HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\DateTime\Servers

modify the binary data for 0 from to

In Windows 7 and later, change the default to a value of 2

Go to Time in Task bar, Internet Time, and select the entry

go to HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\TimeProviders\Ntpclient

change or add SpecialPollInterval Type=Reg_dword Data=1020 (binary) this = 17 minutes in seconds you can change to whatever you like in seconds that system polls external time server to update time accuracy.

Run InternetTime.exe to change update interval to whatever you like if you are Registry-Shy

12. Install Win2k after WinXP and be able to boot both O/S's


1) In Windows XP, open Windows Explorer and locate NTLDR and NTDETECT.COM in the root directory of your boot drive. These are usually Hidden files, so you'll have to adjust your Explorer options to show them.

2) Copy these files to a blank, formatted floppy, or other location that will be available after the Win2K install.

Install Windows 2000

1) Boot your computer from the Win2K CD and continue with the installation.
2) Proceed with the install. Install Windows 2000 to a different partition than XP is installed in.
3) Complete the Windows install. Allow the computer to boot into Windows 2000.

Repairing the Windows® XP Boot Loader

When the Windows 2000 installation is done, boot the computer into Windows 2000, not Windows XP.

1) Insert the floppy disk that you used earlier (or access the location you used), to backup NTLDR and NTDETECT.COM
2) Copy NTLDR and NTDETECT.COM back to the root directory of your boot drive. Again, you may have to adjust your Explorer Options.

Now, you'll be able to restart your computer and boot into Win 2K or Win XP. This procedure is necessary because the Win XP version of NTLDR and NTDETECT.COM will boot Windows 2000, but not vice-versa.

13. Starting XP O/S Install in IDE mode, then changing to AHCI

Manufacturer Response:
Dear Valued Customer,

We apologize for the issues you are experiencing with this motherboard. The default SATA configuration on this motherboard is 'AHCI', but you can enter the BIOS and change this option to 'IDE' which will allow you to install Windows XP without needing a floppy driver for the AHCI drivers. If you install Windows XP in IDE mode and then later want to change over to AHCI mode for the advanced features but have you previous install still work, then you can go to the following link to download a registry patch that will enable AHCI mode on your Windows XP install. After running this patch, you can enter the BIOS and change the SATA config. from IDE to AHCI -> then reboot and XP should start up no problem and now be able to utilize the advanced AHCI features.


ASUS Support Team

14. Creating Batch file for copying files out of Windows 7

When creating batch files for My Documents in Windows 7, the path is "c:\users\joblo\documents" even though it says My Documents, there is no folder by that name. Use documents as above and all will work well.

15. File Sharing in Windows 7

If you want file sharing to work with XP/Window 7 computers, you must get rid of home groups completely, go to advanced file sharing and change permissions to 56 bit, open everything up, leave passwords in place. You may also have to go to grpedit to disable the no password at console only setting.

16. Setting up auto login in Windows 7 with password or blank password for network logon

The Checkbox was not there for me either.
So you could just follow the same procedure Microsoft had for windows xp.
1. Press the Windows key + R on your keyboard to launch the “Run” dialog box.
2. Type regedit and hit enter to open the Registry Editor
3. Then browse to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\WindowsNT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\
4. Set AutoAdminLogon = 1 (create it if doesn't exist its a string variable)
5. Set DefaultUserName = your username (create it if doesn't exist its a string variable)
6. Set DefaultPassword = your password (create it if doesn't exist its a string variable)

Windows Settings > Security Settings > Local Policies > Security Options
3- In right panel, right click “Accounts: Limit local account use of blank passwords to console login only” and select properties and select Disable

17. Maping Network Drives on Windows 7 Pro or Ultimate

*. Upgrade to Professional to get the Security Policy editor:

*. Do this magic:

Run, secpol.msc

Under local security policies, make sure under Local Policies > Security Options > Network Security: LAN Manager Authentication level , that “Send LM & NTLM, use NTLMv2 session security is negotiated” is chosen

It's really lame of Microsoft to force an upgrade to Professional for cross domain drive mounts.
Proposed As Answer byWin7Noobee Friday, January 15, 2010 5:08 PM

Friday, January 15, 2010 5:12 PM

The way I fixed it was this way. Sorry, my answer is worded for a NAS device but the trick would probably work for the orig poster:
To make things work, I had to trick windows into thinking that the two shares were on separate servers by adding an alias entry in the hosts file (system32/drivers/etc/hosts) DNS323USERS

Then I mapped one share using \\\Sync and the other using \\DNS323USERS\Users

The above worked. So much for a security policy!

Microsoft: Please dont fill the security hole! BTW, winXP works fine without this hack. Im going to guess its a bug in win7. This is a very common scenario for people using NAS devices which are getting more and more popular every day.

In Windows 7, go to Control Panel>All Control Panel Items>Network and Sharing Center. Click on "Change advanced sharing settings". You don't want to use Homegroup unless you have all Windows 7 machines. If you do and you want to use Homegroup, see Windows 7's Help & Support. Otherwise, in the Advanced Sharing:

Turn ON network discovery
Turn ON file and printer sharing
Turn ON sharing in the Public folder sharing section
Turn ON password protected sharing

A. Configure firewalls on all machines to allow the Local Area Network (LAN) traffic as trusted. With Windows Firewall, turning on Window's File and Printer Sharing as above will take care of this for you. In XP you can run the Network Setup Wizard or just enable File/Printer Sharing in the Windows XP Firewall's exceptions. If you aren't running a third-party firewall or have an antivirus/security program with its own firewall component, then you're fine. With third-party firewalls, I usually configure the LAN allowance with an IP range. Ex. would be Obviously you would substitute your correct subnet. Refer to any third party security program's Help or user forums for how to properly configure its firewall. Do not run more than one firewall. DO NOT TURN OFF FIREWALLS; CONFIGURE THEM CORRECTLY.

B. For ease of organization, put all computers in the same Workgroup. This is done from the System applet in Control Panel, Computer Name tab.

C. Create matching user accounts and passwords on all machines. You do not need to be logged into the same account on all machines and the passwords assigned to each user account can be different; the accounts/passwords just need to exist and match on all machines. DO NOT NEGLECT TO CREATE PASSWORDS, EVEN IF ONLY SIMPLE ONES . If you wish a machine to boot directly to the Desktop (into one particular user's account) for convenience, you can do this:

Start>Search box>type: netplwiz [enter]
Click on Continue (or supply an administrator's password) when prompted by UAC

Uncheck the option "Users must enter a user name and password to use this computer". Select a user account to automatically log on by clicking on the desired account to highlight it and then hit OK. Enter the correct password for that user account (if there is one) when prompted. Leave it blank if there is no password (null).

XP - Configure Windows to Automatically Login (MVP Ramesh) -

D. If one or more of the computers on your network is XP Pro or Media Center, turn off Simple File Sharing (Folder Options>View tab).

E. Create shares as desired. In Windows 7 I usually share out the user's Desktop and the Public directory.

18. Slow Vista/7 Mapped Drives Network Fix

This is necessary to speed up networked drive performance in Windows 7

Run these 2 strings in a command prompt.

netsh int tcp set heuristics disabled

netsh int tcp set global autotuninglevel=disabled

reboot required

In Windows Features, turn off Remote Differential Compression

19. How to create a 2nd set of HP recovery DVD's

Complete details are buried in a long list of responses but are available at this website: Here

Should this website become unavailable, the details are reproduced here: How to create a 2nd set of HP recovery DVD's

This works for ONLY those legit HP owners who own an HP laptop and burned one set of recovery DVD's. After the first set has been created you are not allowed by the HP utility to create another set.

So if you have lost your recovery discs, according to HP you one choice. Order their recovery disc set from their website. So if you have NOT deleted the recovery partion here is how you are able to create one more set of the discs without spending any money.

This information is strictly for legitimate HP owners who have purchased a laptop with an OEM version of WIN7/VISTA/XP and have lost or ruined their original recovery discs.

Set the folder options to allow viewing of hidden files and folders and show known file extensions.

Search for the following file: hpcd.sys

There will be 2 copies,1 in C:\WINDOWS\SMINST and 1 in E:\

Delete both copies of the hpcd.sys files.

Run the HP recovery disk creation utility.

20. Favicon Format

<link rel="shortcut icon" href="" />

21. 2 Ways to Recover a Bricked Linksys WRT54G/GL Router

One Way to recover a blinking bricked Linksys router.

Do a 30/30/30 hard reset:

That is for 30 seconds hold reset, unplug and keep holding reset 30 more seconds, plug back in keep holding reset 30 more seconds, then unplug still holding reset in for 10 more seconds.

If you've done this correctly, you have held in the reset button continuously for over 100 seconds.

Plug power connector back in and wait at least 5 minutes for light to stop blinking.

IF it is still blinking after 5 minutes then proceed as follows.

You must get the Linksys firmware code for your WRT54G/GL. Rename to code.bin

aa-bb-cc-dd-ee-ff is mac address printed on bottom of router.

Type these commands in a XP or later administrative command prompt window:

arp -s aa-bb-cc-dd-ee-ff


tftp -i PUT code.bin code.bin

Wait until it says success.

If it fails for some reason, do another hard reset and repeat entire process with intention it will succeed. I have used this method twice with success.

The Second Way to Recover a Bricked Linksys Router

The next way is rather strange but actually works. This method worked after the pin shorting method had failed. It is done by unplugging and plugging the power cord into the router quickly. 1/4 sec, 1/2 sec. etc. It may take 20-50 times to catch a reset.

This worked with a router that had been so bricked, it would not light up when the network cable was plugged into it, thus the router and computer were not connecting at Layer 1. There were no electrical signals flowing.

The speed at which you plug in/out makes a difference. You need to try various speeds. At one point, you catch various capacitors in various states of charge, which effectively performs a reset. Much easier than disassembly and pin shorting.

22. Backup Windows 7, 8, Server 2003, Server 2008 Files Using Robocopy with batch file

Creating Batch Files for backing up Data in Windows 7, other O/S's may have slight variations

use robocopy with these switches robocopy /?

only use "c:\my stuff" double quotes when spaces occur in path

/xj to exclude symbolic links/junctions
/e to copy all dir/subdir including empty ones
/r:1 retry once
/zb copy files in restart, fall back to backup mode
/a copy only files with archive bit set
/m copy only files with archive bit set and reset it
/xf exclude files matching given names/paths/wildcards /xf desktop.ini
/xd exclude directories matching given names/paths /xd cqgnet
/mir same as /e and /purge
/purge deletes files that are no longer in source dir.

robocopy c:\video\00 \\\d$\ /e /r:1 /xj /xf desktop.ini /v

this copies everything inside 00 including dirs. to inside, but the 00 folder was not copied

leaving the \ off the end of the path is important to copying files inside it

robocopy /mir /r:1 /xj "c:\users\username\appdata\local\google\chrome\user data" \\\d$\\chrome

this copies everything inside user data, but when files are removed from cache, it deletes them from destination

Sample Batch File:

::rem xcopy "c:\users\username\appdata\local\microsoft\outlook" \\\d$\docsbak.test\mydocs\
::rem robocopy /e /r:1 /xj c:\video\00 \\\d$\


robocopy c:\users\username\documents \\\d$\\documents /e /r:1 /xj /xf desktop.ini /v


robocopy c:\users\username\desktop \\\d$\\desktop /e /r:1 /xj /xf desktop.ini /v


robocopy c:\users\username\videos \\\d$\\videos /e /r:1 /xj /xf desktop.ini /v


robocopy c:\users\username\pictures \\\d$\\pictures /e /r:1 /xj /xf desktop.ini /v


robocopy c:\users\username\favorites \\\d$\\favorites /e /r:1 /xj /xf desktop.ini /v


robocopy c:\users\username\contacts \\\d$\\contacts /e /r:1 /xj /xf desktop.ini /v


robocopy c:\users\username\music \\\d$\\music /e /r:1 /xj /xf desktop.ini /v


robocopy c:\users\username\downloads \\\d$\\downloads /e /r:1 /xj /xf desktop.ini /v


robocopy c:\users\public \\\d$\\public /e /r:1 /xj /xf desktop.ini /v /xd cqgnet


robocopy c:\outlook.test.bk \\\d$\\outlook /e /r:1 /xj /xf desktop.ini /v


robocopy c:\users\username\appdata\roaming\mozilla \\\d$\\firefox /e /r:1 /xj /xf desktop.ini /v


robocopy "c:\users\username\appdata\local\google\chrome\user data" \\\d$\\chrome /mir /r:1 /xj /xf desktop.ini /v


robocopy c:\downloads\config \\\d$\\downloads\config /mir /r:1 /xj /xf desktop.ini /v


23. Speed up Windows 7 Boot Time by 100% to 300%

To speed up the boot time of your Windows 7 Laptop or Desktop, first you must have at least 4Gb of ram installed.

Next, go to Control Panel > System > Advanced system settings > Performance > Advanced > Virtual Memory > Change > Uncheck Automatically manage paging file for all drives, select the boot drive and select the No paging file, then click the Set button. Make sure in the window it says, C: paging file None.

Reboot and experience a much faster reboot. Also defrag your hard drive with the built in Defragger.

24. Fix Windows Explorer Slow to List Files inside Folders

By default folders come up set to "Optimize this folder for: General" but switching folders with a lot of files over to "Documents" seems to stop Explorer from trying to figure out anything about the files that is not already in the file tables.

To change, right click on folder name, select Properties, Customize Tab, Optimize this Folder For: Select "Documents" and be sure to check the box that says " Also apply this template to all sub folders" Apply the setting and enjoy the XP like performance returned to Windows 7.

25. Add back the Start Menu and Disable the Windows 8 Metro Interface with 1 Program

Download Classic Shell from Here - freeware - and install it

Choose which interface, Classic, XP or Windows 7 you like. Upon rebooting Windows 8 you will find that the Metro Interface has been disabled, bringing you to the lockscreen icon, followed by the login screen. See 28 to remove lockscreen icon.

26. Add a shortcut to the Metro Apps Interface Icons

Create a shortcut on your desktop and paste in this string to get to the Metro Apps Icon Interface.

%windir%\explorer.exe shell:::{2559a1f8-21d7-11d4-bdaf-00c04f60b9f0}

27. Add a Shortcut to the Windows 8 Desktop to Shutdown your computer

Create a shortcut on the desktop and paste in this string shutdown /s /t 0

28. Remove Windows 8 Lockscreen

If you have Windows 8 Professional or Enterprise:

run (Control R) gpedit.msc

Navigate to Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > Control Panel > Personalization

Click on Do Not Display the Lockscreen option, select Enabled and click OK.

If you have Windows 8 Home Premium:

A registry edit is required. In the Run box (Control R) type regedit and open

Go to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE > SOFTWARE > Policies > Microsoft > Windows > Personalization

Create a new REG_DWORD value called NoLockScreen, and set the value to 1

Upon reboot, the Lock Screen will no longer be there, you will go right to the Login Screen.

29. Add God Mode to Windows 7 and Windows 8

1- Create a New Folder

2- Copy the following string: GodMode.{ED7BA470-8E54-465E-825C-99712043E01C}

3- Rename the New Folder by pasting in the copied string.

Open the folder and enjoy!

30. Transferring Outlook Express Emails and Account Settings to Outlook

The Easy Way

1- The Easy Way is to Install an older (2003 or newer) version of Microsoft Office Outlook onto the old computer, then open Outlook and go to File, Import, select Outlook Express and Everything is Imported right in.

2- Now find the .pst file under

drive:\Documents and Settings\UserName\Local Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook .pst outlook data file

drive:\Documents and Settings\UserName\Local Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook .wab outlook address book (This may not exist)

3- Copy all files in the above folder to the new location, usually found at drive:\Users\UserName\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Outlook. The email account info may have to be re-entered using this method, as they often do not transfer this way.

The Harder Way

Transfer email accounts: Run Outlook Express and go to Tools > Accounts > Mail > Export and click save to an .iaf file in My Documents. Transfer file to new computer. Open Windows Live Mail, hold alt key to see menu bar, click Import, The harder way is to locate the Outlook Express Data Files at drive:\Documents and Settings\UserName\Local Settings\Application Data\Identities\{some-long-string}\Microsoft\Outlook Express

and the Address Book that holds email Contacts C:\Documents and Settings\UserName\Application Data\Microsoft\Address Book. Copy them to a folder on the new computer. Start up Windows Live Mail, or download, install and start up Windows Live Mail, and now import

31. Internet Explorer 10 will not work with JavaScript web pages.

When this is happening, it's likely your computer came with or has a McAfee Anti Virus on it that blocks IE10 from working properly. Even after uninstalling McAfee in Control Panel, that is not sufficient. You must click on the link below and download/run the program which will completely remove all traces of McAfee from your computer, so that IE10 can work properly

McAfee Removal Program

Another program to run to remove traces of old programs can be found here as freeware:

Revo Uninstaller Freeware

32. How to remove the FBI Fake Ransomware Virus and other Spywear, Malware and Ransomware in general

Some kind person has created a web page that details how to do it, but your success is far from assured using these methods. If these fail, try this webpage found at to begin.

In case the webpage is moved or unavailable, the short version is:

1- Boot into Safe Mode with Command Prompt. At the command prompt type rstrui.exe and hit Enter. System Restore should start, pick one that is before the infection, possibly more than a week, since this virus can delay showing up.

2- Another way is, once in Safe mode with command prompt, type in:
cd \users\UserName\AppData\Local. Now list directory contents and look for any folder or file starting with a KB and delete them. Next delete everything in the Temp folder. Also check roaming area for KB folders and delete if found. Now start regedit, and go to HKCU > Software > Microsoft > WindowsNT > CurrentVersion > WinLogon and check the shell entry that has explorer.exe - remove any path, string or writing that extends past explorer.exe as this is triggering the startup of the virus. Now go one more layer deeper into Windows and check in there.

Now do the same thing for: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon

Now come back out to HKCU > Software > Microsoft > Windows > CurrentVersion > Run and delete the KB addition or anything else that shouldn't be there. Check RunOnce as well.

Now check here in case it went into system wide settings: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run and do the same as in HKCU all the way through.

Once those are gone, now run MalwareBytes on the system in SafeMode with Networking so you can get the latest updates for the scanner.

3- If that didn't work or don't have any restore points, next try is using the Kasparsky Rescue Disc CD. Download the .iso file Here and burn it to a CD or DVD. Now boot the computer with the CD/DVD and run it. When the screen comes up, be sure to click on the Update Center tab and update it to the latest Virus Definitions. Now switch back over to the Objects Scan Tab and click on Start Objects Scan. Now come back in about an hour to see how it's doing. When it detects a Virus, it will prompt you for action, select Delete for any and all it finds. When completed, reboot the computer.

3A- Follow these directions on this website for special use of Kaspersky Rescue CD via USB Flash DriveHere It will required the rescue cd .iso and one more file.

3B- It may be a good idea to follow up with a Bootable Virus Disc from a different vendor. Download link for Comodo Rescue Disc is Here 4- If you don't have any CD or DVD blank media, next option is to download Hitman Pro Kickstart, which will create a bootable flash drive that will run to clean out the computer. NOTE: This program will wipe clean anything on that flash drive and install it's own files. Download the Hitman program from Here

5- Now after restarting Windows regularly, you need to download and install MalwareBytes from Here and run it to clean up anything that may be left.

To really be sure, also install the Hitman Pro Kickstart on your computer (not on a flash drive) and use it to scan for any lingering infected files.

6- Additional things to clean out of any previously infected computer, use MBAR, MalwareBytes Anti-Rookit Download from Here , Install and Run.

7- Stand up and stretch your body, take a break. 8- Next run msconfig to check for programs starting up, clean up services etc.

9- CCleaner, gets rid of registry entries from lingering old malware, virus, adware, etc. be sure to save everything that's being removed before you remove them. Here

10- Next is a freeware defragger that lets you selectively defrag certain parts of the hard drive. Download DeFraggler and install Here

11- Download from Here's TCP Optimizer tool, select your download bandwidth and use the optimize settings.

12- Also you'll want to see actual boot times with a nice litte freeware program called Boot Racer, get it here: Here

33. Remove Recent Document History in Windows 7

Using regedit, go the HKCU > Software > Microsoft > Windows > Current Version > Policies > Explorer (Apply to HKLM if system wide setting is desired)

Create a DWORD Value with the key NoRecentDocsHistory and set value to 1. Reboot.

34. Add the Quick Launch Bar in Windows 7

Right on an empty area of the toolbar, go to Toolbars > New Toolbar...

Paste this string near the bottom of the window that opens up, just above Select Folder:

%AppData%\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Quick Launch

Now click on Select Folder. Quick Launch will appear on the right side of the Toolbar and has to be moved. Right click where it says Quick Launch for options.

35. Convert Sony Camcorder .MTS Files to DVD's, for iPhones and Web Pages

The problem I have found, is to convert the .mts files to a high quality format that keeps the sound in sync. After trying and learning many different expensive programs, none of which worked well (huge lags in audio sync, etc), the progam that works best I found to be AVS Video Editor.

Import all your .mts files into the video editor, remove unwanted parts, split as needed, add transitions, etc. Or you can import each .mts file and save it in this exact spec: .avi, Video: 1920x1080, H264, 1500 kbps, (2500kbps for max quality) 29.97 fps. Audio: mp3, 256kbps, 44.1khz.

You can also convert the .mts video directly into iPhone ready files as: MP4…M4v files must be created for iphone to see videos, they can’t see flash videos, so you save the file in .m4v format, and put file name into existing code pages. Video: Mpeg4, H264, 640x420, 30fps, 721kbps video bit rate. Audio: ACC 48000hz stereo 124kbps.

For flash based files, you save them as .flv files and place those into existing code pages. Flash video: 720x400, custom, 29.97fps, 1572kbps video bit rate, Audio mp3, 44100Hz stero, 128kbps.

For DVD's once your project is complete, save the videos to DVD's all using the same program.

Be sure to always save your project as you work, since if it crashes, all changes are lost. I generally save every 5 minutes when working with this program.

36. Type gpedit.msc in Run to make security changes to Windows 7

Local Computer Policy > Computer Configuration > User Configuration > Administrative Templates > Start Manu and Taskbar Here you can change many options such as No recent history, no document history, no open save history etc.

37. Enable the hidden Administrator Account in Windows 7

Open a command prompt in Administrator Mode and type in this:

net user administrator /active:yes

The system will respond with OK. Now go to User Accounts in Control Panel and give it a strong, unique password.

If severe problems arise with your Windows 7 O/S, their are many things the Administrator account can do that an account with "Administrator Rights" cannot do without great pain or at all.

38. Install an Enterprise version of Google Chrome and Firefox browser.

Chrome Enterprise Page This allows for locking down the apps data where cryptolocker operates from.

Firefox ESR Page This also allows for locking down the apps data where cryptolocker operates from.

39. Resources to Remove Malware/Spyware/Virus and to Lock Down Computers to prevent CryptoLocker Infections.

Computerworld Instructions This allows for locking down the apps data where cryptolocker operates from.

Bleeping Computer.Com Instructions

HitmanPro 3 Direct Download - Free

ADWCleaner Direct Download - Free

Tinywall Firewall - Free

Zemana Anti-Logger - Free

Malwarebytes - Free

Additional Help for Removal of Malware

CryptoPrevent Automated Program for Windows Home Premium Users - Free

Microsoft Disable Autorun Page - Free

Microsoft EMET 5.1 Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit - Free
Best Explaination on how to use it is found Here, but basically just use recommended settings and add in all apps that access the internet in any way.
Update, installing EMET 5.1 on a computer with bios set to support a Virtual Machine caused Windows 7 Ultimate to freeze after login. Reverting to 5.0 solved problem.

Securing Google Chrome Web Browser

Set Internet Explorer to run Protected Mode in Every Zone, In Control Panel > Internet Options > Security, Enable Protected Mode for every Zone, and Apply, recheck to assure settings took.

UAC - User Account Control must be set to ON, highest setting possible, and under Control Panel > Administrator Tools > Local Security Policy > Local Policies > Security Options - Find and change User Account Control: Behavior of the elevation prompt for standard users AND Behavior of the elevation prompt for administrators in Admin Approval Mode BOTH of these must be: Prompt for credentials on a secure desktop

There is an excellent website for Hardening Windows 7 and 8 found here: Harden Windows 7

Parts of the information from Hardening Windows 7 is reproduced here should the website become unavailable.

Low Integrity Firefox You can enhance Firefox's security by setting it to low integrity. Open an elevated command prompt and copy and paste in following commands, one line at a time, substituting with your account name:

icacls "C:\Program Files (x86)\Mozilla Firefox\Firefox.exe" /setintegritylevel low
icacls "C:\Users\\AppData\Local\Temp" /setintegritylevel(oi)(ci) low /t
icacls "C:\Users\\AppData\Local\Mozilla" /setintegritylevel(oi)(ci) low /t
icacls "C:\Users\\AppData\Roaming\Mozilla" /setintegritylevel(oi)(ci) low /t
icacls "C:\Users\\Downloads" /setintegritylevel(oi)(ci) low /t
icacls "C:\Users\\AppData\Local\Temp" /setintegritylevel(oi)(ci) low /t
icacls "C:\Users\\AppData\Local\Mozilla" /setintegritylevel(oi)(ci) low /t
icacls "C:\Users\\AppData\Roaming\Mozilla" /setintegritylevel(oi)(ci) low /t
icacls "C:\Users\\Downloads" /setintegritylevel(oi)(ci) low /t

Mozilla Firefox plug-ins, No Script, AdBlock Plus and WOT should be added.

In Control Panel > Internet Options > Security, Enable Protected Mode for every Zone, and Apply, recheck to assure settings took.

Tools for Managing Windows Integrity Levels can be found Here

Shadow Explorer - Free This program lets you see all the previous Shadow Copies created by System Restore and restore your files that have been lost, damages, encrypted etc. AFTER you remove the virus or problem.

Here is a link to a site that explains how to do all this Enable SRP/AppLocker

Here are the short versions should this site become unavailable:
To best secure Windows 7 Home Premium, create a new user account with Administrator rights and call it something like InstallsOnly.

Now log into that account and change all the regular accounts to have Standard User rights only.

Now navigate to Control Panel > User Accounts > Manage Accounts > Set up Parental Controls, Select Run Only Programs I Allow. It will scan all existing programs, it best to select check all, then scroll through the list to look for ones that should not be there and uncheck/uninstall them. Once that's done, you've gone a long way to limiting the ability of malware to execute on your computer. You will not be able to install programs as a Standard User, you must use the InstallsOnly account to do that.

To best secure Windows 8, 7, XP Pro/Ult standalone or domain connected systems.

You can use either AppLocker or Software Restriction Policies in Group Policy Editor, gpedit.msc type in the search box and right click to run as Administrator.

Here is a link to the official NSA computer lockdown document - Application Whitelisting Using Software Restriction Policies August 2010

First you must go to this link at Microsoft and download a fix that prevents AppLocker and SRP from being bypassed, a "feature" put into Windows 7 and Server 2008 by Microsoft. KB253445

Open Group Policy Editor or Local Security Policy by typing them into search. Open them with a right click and select run as administrator.
For GPEditor, go to Computer Configuration > Windows Settings > Computer Settings > Software Restriction Policies. If there are none, right click on SRP and create new policies.

Double click on Enforcement and choose All Software Files (On some computers, selecting this more restrictive Policy will prevent Chrome and Firefox from running) in that case, select the less restrictive All Software Files except libraries (such as DLL's) and All Users except Local Administrators and with LSP, select Ignore Certificate Rules.

Now double click Designated File Types and scroll down to find and highlight LNK, and delete it, so that links/shortcuts can be used to start programs.

Click on Security Levels and right click on Disallowed, and set it as default, and then click Yes on the window that appears.

If you want to turn SRP off, set Unrestricted as Default.

Right click on Additional Rules, and add New Path Rule, and browse to C:\Program Files (x86) and add it. At this point also add any programs you run that are not in the path rules, such as a portable app in another folder. You may also add a specific file or batch file to run using the New Hash rule.

Only in Windows 8 add a New Path Rule for C:\Program Files\WindowsApps

Now to really tighten things up, download Access Check - Free from Microsoft, and copy this text to create a batch file that also runs in the same folder. It will show what paths have Write Access (W) and have to be added to the disallowed paths for executable programs. In other words, the paths revealed by running Access Check have write access for Standard Users, since they are located inside folders that have Unrestricted Access, a malware that runs only in memory could write to these paths and then execute without being blocked. By spending a few minutes to add these paths to your Software Restriction Policies and setting them as Disallowed, you prevent this from happening. A few minutes of work now, can save hours or days or pain later.

accesschk -w -s -q -u Users "C:\Program Files"
accesschk -w -s -q -u Users "C:\Program Files (x86)"
accesschk -w -s -q -u Users "C:\Windows"
accesschk -w -s -q -u Everyone "C:\Program Files"
accesschk -w -s -q -u Everyone "C:\Program Files (x86)"
accesschk -w -s -q -u Everyone "C:\Windows"
accesschk -w -s -q -u "Authenticated Users" "C:\Program Files"
accesschk -w -s -q -u "Authenticated Users" "C:\Program Files (x86)"
accesschk -w -s -q -u "Authenticated Users" "C:\Windows"
accesschk -w -s -q -u Interactive "C:\Program Files"
accesschk -w -s -q -u Interactive "C:\Program Files (x86)"
accesschk -w -s -q -u Interactive "C:\Windows"

Do not lock down the C:\Windows\System32\spool folder or you won't be able print.

As you continue to install new programs, you will need to run this batch file again to see what new write paths have been added.

Additional Security for DLL Search Path

Once you have all that working, you should consider adding this Microsoft Fix for Controlling the DLL Search Path, specifically to block loading DLL's from a WebDAV or SMB share.

Microsoft KB2264107
Note: You must install one of the updates for your O/S before applying the Hotfix which is available on the update page.

Final Thoughts on SRP Implementation

To run an .msi file, there is no run as Administrator option so move the file into the Program Files folder and run it from there.

If things really get messed up, boot up in Safe Mode and then change Security Levels to Unrestricted as Default.

40. How to Theoretically Exclude Certain Files/Folders from Volume Shadow Copy (System Restore Points)

Microsoft Link to this Info

This is provided in case the link is no longer active.
Using the FilesNotToSnapshot Registry Key
Note The FilesNotToSnapshot registry key is intended to be used only by applications. Users who attempt to use it will encounter limitations such as the following:
It cannot delete files from a shadow copy that was created on a Windows Server by using the Previous Versions feature.
It cannot delete files from shadow copies for shared folders.
It can delete files from a shadow copy that was created by using the DiskShadow utility, but it cannot delete files from a shadow copy that was created by using the Vssadmin utility.
Files are deleted from a shadow copy on a best-effort basis. This means that they are not guaranteed to be deleted.

A VSS application can delete files from a shadow copy during shadow copy creation by using the following registry key:


This registry key has REG_MULTI_SZ values for each application whose files can be excluded.
The files are specified by fully qualified paths, which can contain the * wildcard.

In all cases, the entry is ignored if there are no files that match the path string.

After a file is added to the appropriate registry key value, it is deleted from the shadow copy during creation by the shadow copy optimization writer on a best-effort basis.

If a fully qualified path cannot be specified, then a path can also be implied by using the %UserProfile% or %AllVolumes% variable. For example:



To make the path recursive, append " /s" to the end. For example:

%UserProfile%\Directory\Subdirectory\FileName.* /s

%AllVolumes%\TemporaryFiles\*.* /s

The %UserProfile% variable causes the path string to be applied to all user profiles on the computer. The user profiles are enumerated by examining the following registry key:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\ProfileList The %AllVolumes% variable causes the path string to be applied to all shadow copies on the computer. For example, suppose the path is

"%AllVolumes%\TemporaryFiles\*.* /s", and the computer has three volumes: C:, D:, and E:. If C: and E: contain the path "\TemporaryFiles\", and volume D: contains only the path D:\Data\, the directory tree C:\TemporaryFiles\ is deleted from shadow copies of C:, and the directory tree E:\TemporaryFiles\ is deleted from shadow copies of E:.
Administrators can disable expansion of the %UserProfile% variable by using the following registry key:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Vss\Settings Under this registry key, specify DisableUserProfileExpansion for the value name, REG_DWORD for the value type, and a nonzero value for the value data.

41. Windows 7 Tips from Technet Magazine (Microsoft)

Technet Magazine Link

42. Windows 7 x64 SP1 Direct Download Link

Windows 7 x64 SP1 Direct Download Link

43. How to Create OpenVPN Certificates and Keys in Windows 7, 8 & 10...A Few Secrets the Linux Geeks leave out.

I have used OpenVPN on DDWRT running on Linksys WRT54GL routers for years with great results, once I finally got it working. To be honest, OpenVPN, created for Linux and ported to Windows, was created by professional masochists for amateurs like us.

Due to all the security updates after the NSA revelations, you may want to download
The very latest stable version of OpenVPN
for 64 bit Windows. Please note: When you begin the installation, be sure to check all the boxes so that the easy-rsa you need to create certificates with, and the latest openssl library is installed. This article assumes you have already tried and failed following the Wiki instructions, OpenVPN Wiki therefore already have a basic familiarity with the steps.

So here are the few secrets that make things work.

1.) Using Windows Explorer, navigate your way to C:\Program Files (x86)\OpenVPN\bin and copy all the files inside to: C:\Program Files (x86)\OpenVPN\easy-rsa

2.) In vars.bat.sample make sure it contains these 3 exact strings:

set KEY_CONFIG=openssl-1.0.0.cnf
(and make sure this exact file name is inside your easy-rsa folder)

set KEY_SIZE=2048
(as 1024bit keys are now insecure)

set HOME=C:\PROGRA~2\OpenVPN\easy-rsa
(The program cannot find the windows path C:\Program Files (x86)\OpenVPN\easy-rsa, thus the old DOS path name must be used.)

3.) In an Administrator Command Prompt, paste in this string and hit enter:
set OPENSSL_CONF=C:\PROGRA~2\OpenVPN\easy-rsa\openssl-1.0.0.cnf
(this removes this error: WARNING: can't open config file: /etc/ssl/openssl.cnf)

Any error messages must be corrected before continuing. If the screen data cannot be loaded into the random state, your key will be very weak.

Run these commands in this order:
build-key-server server (common name=server)
build-key client1 (2,3,4 etc) (common name=client1,2,3,4 etc)

Once these changes have been made, you should be able to follow the Wiki without error messages. I suggest making at least 5 client certs, though 1 client cert. will work with simultaneous multiple connections.

4.) Once all your Certificates, Keys and DH have been generated, be sure to run this command:
openvpn.exe --genkey --secret ta.key
move the file into the keys directory. Use of this key can be found in the Hardening Section of the Wiki. Also be sure to use UDP.

5.) Next create a server script and a firewall script. When copying the data out of the .crt and .key files be sure to only use Notepad.exe, found under All Programs > Accessories. Using Wordpad, while it may look easier, can leave blank characters that prevent the data from being correct, thus it won't connect.

Click Here to see samples of:

OpenVPN DDWRT Server Script

OpenVPN DDWRT Firewall Script

OpenVPN DDWRT Client Script

Now here are a few secrets to get WRT54GL running DDWRT to accept your newly created OpenVPN startup and firewall script.

1.) There are two versions of DDWRT that will work reliably with a Linksys/Cisco WRT54GL and OpenVPN.

Older versions, although they may work well, have too many security issues that have been discovered in recent years.

The 3 recommended versions are currently 12548, 14929 and 15962

DDWRT v24 r12548 mini generic download link

DDWRT v24 r12548 vpn download link

I have been testing this firmware version 14929 and have found it's performance to be quite stable, and built for broadband. There may be a bug in this version if you are using Repeater Mode (which I don't use). Otherwise everything works well.

DDWRT v24 r14929 mini generic download link

DDWRT v24 r14929 vpn download link

The latest version mentioned in the Peacock Thread that may work ok for you.

DDWRT v24 r15962 mini generic download link

DDWRT v24 r15962 vpn download link

I suggest you follow the directions in the DDWRT Peacock thread for installing any of these firmware.

WARNING: Make one small mistake with this and you will brick your router, making recovery only with a JTAG device the only hope left for getting your router working again.

NOTE: No version of DDWRT, Tomato or any spin off offers OpenVPN and IPv6 in a 3.5Mb package as of Nov. 2013 that I am aware of.

2.) The date and time on your router must be later than the time of creation of your OpenVPN Certificates, or it simply will not connect.

3.) Do not not make any setting changes to your router, and especially do not change the router IP address from it's default of until AFTER you have copied and saved the OpenVPN server script and firewall script into the router. If you are changing to a new cert, again you must do a hard reset to remove all remaining code and start from a fresh setup. Yes, it's a pita, but the only way to insure it works properly. There is a firmware bug that prevents OpenVPN scripts from running if the router IP address is changed BEFORE you install the scripts. It took me a long time to find this defect. Easy to get around it if you know about it, now you do. I'd avoid making any changes at all until you've got the OpenVPN scripts inside and running successfully.

4.) You can easily test your VPN Router script from inside your network simply by setting your client config file to this: remote
Once you can successfuly connect, I recommend you change your router IP address range to something else, such as or so when you are away from your network, and trying to VPN back in, the computer will be able to route to a different subnet.

5.) Be sure to set a password on the key for your remote computers, by right clicking on the OpenVPN Taskbar Icon, select Connect or name if multiple connections exist and select Change Password. If it had no previous password, leave that field blank.

44. How to Delete the hidden Content.IE5 Files in Vista

Vista has a severe defect (no kidding) that allows it to save and never delete every .htm and .js file ever used by Internet Explorer. In addition, it saves them in a place that cannot be found by Windows Explorer with any settings, and is not deleted by the clear cache etc. setting in Internet Explorer Options.

I recently found a Vista machine with 300Gb, yes that's 300 Gb's of Files in the hidden file location of C:\Users\Name\AppData\Microsoft\Windows\Tempor~1\Content.IE5

The only sane way to remove them was using an Administrator Command Prompt where you cd to this path,

and then type in: del /f/s/q foldername > nul.

The use of > nul prevented the system from displaying each file, saving time. Thanks to Hugo at Stackoverflow for this solution.

45. Add Group Policy Editor to Windows 7 or 8 Home Premium

I suggest you follow the directions in the Add Group Policy to Home Premium Website

The instructions to do this have been reproduced here in case the website(s) should become unavailable. Special thanks to, and DeviantArt.Com for this information.

"jwils876" @ DA has shared a small setup file to enable Group Policy Editor in Windows 7 Starter, Home Basic and Home Premium editions.

The installer has been originally created by "davehc" @ Windows7forums, so thanks goes to him as well.

Download this file: Download Group Policy Installer or Here

Even though this adds Group Policy Editor to Windows Home Premium, it still does not allow using Software Restriction Policy in the Local Security Policy section.

You'll find the download link in right-side section of the above mentioned page. After downloading the ZIP file, extract it using WinRAR or 7-Zip. Run the extracted setup.exe file. It'll install the files and you'll be able to access gpedit.msc command via RUN or Start Menu search box.

NOTE 1: For Windows 7 64-bit (x64) users! You'll also need to go to "SysWOW64" folder present in "C:\Windows" folder and copy "GroupPolicy", "GroupPolicyUsers" folders and gpedit.msc file from there and paste them in "C:\Windows\System32" folder.

NOTE 2: If you are getting "MMC could not create the snap-in" error message while running gpedit.msc, check out following steps to fix the problem. Basically it happens when your username in Windows contains more than one word.

1. Run the installer and leave it at the last step (do not click on the "Finish" button).

2. Now go to C:\Windows\Temp\gpedit\ folder.

3. If you are running 32-bit (x86) edition of Windows 7, right-click on x86.bat file and choose "Open With -> Notepad" option. If you are running 64-bit (x64) edition of Windows 7, right-click on x64.bat file and choose "Open With -> Notepad" option.

4. You'll find a total of 6 lines containing the following string in the file:


5. Edit those lines and replace %username%:f with "%username%":f

For example:

Original: icacls %WinDir%\SysWOW64\gpedit.dll /grant:r %username%:f New: icacls %WinDir%\SysWOW64\gpedit.dll /grant:r "%username%":f

6. Save and run the file (right-click -> Run as Administrator).

7. That's it. You'll have working gpedit.msc.

46. How to Remove Files Administrator Cannot Delete

Open Windows Explorer and create a new folder under the root directory named Windows.old
Now move all folders or files you cannot delete into the Windows.old folder
Go to search and type in clean and select Disc Cleanup, or navigate to All Programs > Accessories > System Tools > Disc Cleanup and start it from there.
Select the drive letter you want to run it on and click OK.
When complete, now click on clean System Files again select driver letter and click ok. Once the search is completed, scroll through the list and check the box next to Old Windows Installation.
Click OK and it will now delete ALL files and folders inside Windows.old regardless of permissions or ownership.

47. Fix Eudora Slow or Hangs on Initial SSL Login

This is fixed by using a hex editor to change 1 byte in the file QCSSL.dll found in the \Program Files (x86)\Qualcomm\Eudora folder

Use your favorite hex editor -here is a link to a freeware hex editor- open QCSSL.dll, search for the string BB 50 00 00 00 and replace the 50 with 01. Save and overwrite the file in the Eudora folder and Voila, no more hang on initial SSL login. If you are feeling lazy or unsure, you may download my fixed QCSSL.dll here or here. Please note this file is for Eudora version Special Thanks to Len64Bit and JCF for this solution.

If Eudora starts losing it's installed certificates and won't pop incoming SSL email, use the Certificate Information Manager > View Certificate Details > Install Certificate > Install Successful. Now click Done, and click on Add to Trusted. In this order is important to solve the problem.

48. Disable Hibernation in Windows 7

Run a command prompt as Administrator. Now type: powercfg.exe /hibernate off

49. Troubleshoot Hang at Welcome Screen or Black Screen after Windows 7 Login

1- Run msconfig as Administrator. In the General Tab, select Selective Startup with Load System Services Only. In the Services Tab, select Hide All Microsoft Services and uncheck what's left. You can re-enable these 1 at a time to find the problem. The video driver is often a major problem with this and may need to be updated or rolled back to original.

Microsoft Reference for this procedure

2- Check to make sure this key exists properly in the registry: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\Shell as a REG_SZ key with the value explorer.exe.

3-Thanks to the forums someone somewhere who suggested this fix if nothing else works.

1) Ctrl+Alt+Del > Start Task manager > File >New Tasks (Run...) > type tasksch.msc
2) Click Task Scheduler Library on left pane > Create Task on right pane
3) Edit following settings:

General Tab
Name: "Explorer fix"
Change User or Group... > type Users
Run with highest privileges > turn on (if you have admin rights)
Run whether user is logged on or not > select this

Triggers Tab - New... > Begin the task > At log on > Any user > Enabled

Actions Tab - New... > Action Start a program > Program/script: = explorer.exe

Conditions Tab - DISABLE Start the task only if the computer is on AC power

Settings Tab
Activate Allow task to run on demand & Run task as soon as possible after a scheduled start is missed & If the running task does not end when requested, force it to stop Deactivate Stop the task if it runs longer than: If the task is already running, then the following rule applies: = Run a new instance in parallel

4) Reboot PC, you should be fixed now

50. Solutions for strange error messages from Dreamweaver CS3 - CS6

Use Windows Explorer and navigate to C:\Users\[name]\AppData\Roaming\[version name]\[language]\configuration. Find the named ***Filecache.dat and rename it to ***Filecache.dat1 , this forces Dreamweaver to recreate a new config file. Complete help for these problems can be found by clicking on this link: Adobe Javascript Errors Page

51. Command line options for the Google Chrome Web Browser to remove use of insecure cipher RC4, SSL 3.0, force a minimum security level of tls 1, add Incognito Mode, and keep Chrome's cache size small.

Right click on the shortcut you use to start Google Chrome, select Properties, Shortcut Tab, and find the Target field. After the "" that enclose the path to the program, add the following string:

--cipher-suite-blacklist=0x0004,0x0005,0x0020,0x0024,0xc002,0xc007,0xc00c,0xc011 --media-cache-size=1 --disk-cache-size=1 --incognito --ssl-version-min=tls1 --disk-cache-dir="C:\chromecache" --user-data-dir="C:\chromecache"

Be sure there is a space between each option. The -cipher suite blacklist forces Chrome to not use the insecure RC4 ciphers which are still widely used at many SSL websites. -Media cache and -Disk cache set to 1 keeps the Chrome otherwise enormous cache size much smaller. -Incognito keeps cookies and history from accumulating. -Disk cache directory puts the cache in an easy to find place.

52. How to check your browser for insecure cipher suites and create a blacklist to prevent Chrome from using them.

You can check what ciphers your browser currently supports by clicking on these links:

SSL/TLS Capabilities of Your Browser

SSL/TLS A Quick Check

SSL Cipher Suite Details of Your Browser

Here is a list of cipher suites considered insecure, and why: List of insecure SSL/TLS cipher suites

Here is the complete list of all hex codes for all ciphers, should you need to add others to Chrome's blacklist: Complete List of All TLS Cipher Codes

Instructions on how to use the TLS Cipher Code list of hex codes with Chrome:

For example: 0x00,0x94 TLS_RSA_PSK_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA, to add this code to the cipher blacklist, you would remove the second 0x and then combine what is left to create 0x0094.

To test the security and cipher capabilities of the https SSL website you are connecting to: SSL Server Test

53. Modify MDT 2013 to allow using your GPO Packs for Windows 8 and Server 2012.

Here is the link that describes the process of fixing this:

Modify MDT 2013 Here

In case this link stops working, here is the fix: Find the following section in ZTIApplyGPOPack.wsf (line 86 – 92):

sOSVersion = oEnvironment.Item("OSCurrentVersion")
If (Left(sOSVersion,3) = "6.2") and oEnvironment.Item("IsServerOS") then
     sOS = "WS2012RTM"
     oLogging.CreateEntry "Using Default Windows Server 2012 RTM GPO Pack", LogTypeInfo
ElseIf (Left(sOSVersion,3) = "6.2") and Not(oEnvironment.Item("IsServerOS")) then
     sOS = "Win8RTM"
     oLogging.CreateEntry "Using Default Windows 8 RTM GPO Pack", LogTypeInfo

and replace it with this:

If (Left(sOSVersion,3) = "6.3") and oEnvironment.Item("IsServerOS") then
     sOS = "WS2012R2"
     oLogging.CreateEntry "Using Windows Server 2012 SP1 PO Pack", LogTypeInfo
ElseIf (Left(sOSVersion,3) = "6.3") and Not(oEnvironment.Item("IsServerOS")) then
     sOS = "Win81"
     oLogging.CreateEntry "Using Windows 8.1 GPO Pack", LogTypeInfo
ElseIf (Left(sOSVersion,3) = "6.2") and oEnvironment.Item("IsServerOS") then
     sOS = "WS2012RTM"
     oLogging.CreateEntry "Using Default Windows Server 2012 RTM GPO Pack", LogTypeInfo
ElseIf (Left(sOSVersion,3) = "6.2") and Not(oEnvironment.Item("IsServerOS")) then
     sOS = "Win8RTM"
     oLogging.CreateEntry "Using Default Windows 8 RTM GPO Pack", LogTypeInfo

54. Change any Windows version (XP, 7, 8, 8.1, 10, etc) install ISO disk image into a universal install disc that prompts the user to choose the install edition (home premium, pro, ultimate etc.) at startup.

Click Here for the website that is the original source of this utility. Much thanks to for making this utility available.

In case this website ever becomes unavailable, the details and utilities are reproduced here.

ei.cfg Removal Utility

The ei.cfg Removal Utility is a tool that will remove the ei.cfg file from any Windows ISO disc image, converting the image into a "universal disc" that will prompt the user to select an edition during setup. This tool works by toggling the deletion bit in the UDF file table, eliminating the need for unpacking and rebuilding the ISO. This makes it extremely fast (fraction of a second) and the process is easily reversible. Running the utility on a disc image patched by this utility will restore the disc image to its original state.

cversion.ini Removal Utility

The cversion.ini Removal Utility is a tool that will remove the cversion.ini file from Windows ISO disc images, which enables the option for in-place upgrades that preserve user settings and programs. This is useful for upgrading from preview release versions of Windows to the final version, for example, Windows 8.1 Preview to Windows 8.1 RTM, while preserving your data, settings, and programs. This tools works in the same manner as the ei.cfg Removal Utility. There is no need to unpack and rebuild ISOs, and the process can be trivially reversed.

A zip of both utilities can be Downloaded Here

55. Microsoft Software Recovery Page
Iso - Disc Images - for O/S Repair or Re-Installations.

Click here for: Microsoft Windows Software Recovery Page

56. Server 2008R2 Loses Gateway IP Address on Every Reboot.

This problem appeared after the replacement of a RAID 5 card and the subsequent data restoral. There were numerous hotfixes listed by Microsoft, but the best solution is to completely reset the TCP/IP Stack by opening an Administrative Command Prompt and executing the following command: netsh int ip reset c:ipreset.log

After rebooting the Server, manually enter the IP Addresses into the Network Adapter Fields if using it as a domain controller.

57. All Windows Domain Computers Have the Wrong Time / Configure Microsoft Server 2008R2 to Update to Correct Time / Server NTP Time Sync Not Working.

Microsoft Server 2008R2 comes with a default setting of not updating the computer time to an outside ntp server source. If you find your domain workstations all have the wrong time, then this is the problem. The solution requires opening a administrative command prompt on the Server and executing the following commands as shown below:

If you run this command: w32tm /resync
and get this reponse: The computer did not resync because no time data was available.

The next command to run is w32tm /query /configuration
See image below for complete details:

Command to check for external ntp time servers

If your response at the end of [Time Servers] is: Type: NT5DS (Local) then you have no outside ntp time servers setup to sync to.

(Note: If you are outside the U.S. you may want to use ntp time servers local to your country. Place them between the double quotes, insuring each one is followed by ,0x1)

Now execute this series of commands:

w32tm /config /manualpeerlist:",0x1,0x1" /syncfromflags:manual /reliable:yes /update

w32tm /config /update

net stop w32time

net start w32time

See image below for complete details:

Commands for enabling Server 2008R2 ntp servers

Now check your configuration again with this command: w32tm /query /configuration

The response at the end of [Time Servers] should be:
NtpServer:,0x1,0x1 (Local) - Or whatever you set your ntp servers to.

See image below for details:

Server 2008R2 w32tm configuration check showing external ntp servers are configured properly

Now run the command: w32tm /resync

you should a response of:

Sending resync command to local computer
The command completed successfully.

Now your Server 2008R2 is checking and syncing its domain time correctly.

58. Check If A Computer Has Secret Outgoing Connections

Open an Administrator Command Prompt and type in the following command:

netstat -b -o -n -a 10 > c:\secret.txt

This command checks all outgoing and incoming connections to the computer at the kernal level, every 10 seconds and logs the results into the file secret.txt found in the root drive of the computer. Let it run for 10 minutes at least, preferably up to 1 hour. The file will have 360 entries per hour but letting it run longer will give you more certainty as to what your computer is really doing.

For a realtime one check into all connections and attached processes, type in the following command:

netstat -b -o -n -a

59. Test your password strength against a database of over 7 trillion password hashes.

With so many major retailers and databases suffering from security breaches, it's important to know if your passwords can be easily obtained from the hashes or if it is of sufficient length and complexity to resist this attack. First you must obtain a MD5 hash of the password you want to check. Instead of using your actual password it would be better to test an equivalent in length and complexity, for example:

If PinkEarth$hoes is the password, use BlueDirty$inks

I suggest MD5 since it is the weakest and most frequently used hash for password storage. It is best to use a password that will hold up under worst case conditions (MD5 hashes) instead of hoping your password is hashed with SHA-256 or higher.

Hash your password here.

Now copy the hash of your choice and test your hash against 7.8 trillion, that's 7,800,000,000,000 unique hashes. You may use it for free. Create a login to be notified via email of when hashes are found within 5 days of their system working on it. All your hashes they discover are added to the hash database. Interestingly, this website is of Chinese domain registry.

Check the 7.8 trillion hash database here.

Other large databases of hashed passwords you may want to test against are:

Check the 43.7 billion hash database here.

Check the 128 billion hash database here.

60. How to send out a Recall Campaign using

Login to

Under the main menu, go to Contacts > Find a contact.

FINDING CONTACTS: This brings up Advanced Search. Now follow these directions exactly, as logic is thrown out the window. If you to send out Recall cards for January 2015, you have to pull up names from January 2014. To do this you select the Anniversary drop down, pick January, and then go to the Day field and put in 14. Do not use the year field. This is due to programming errors, and this the work around. Also you must clear group selection and only check the year you are pulling from, 2014 in this case.

Now click Find Contact and the names from your selection will appear. Now you have to select a Campaign, Recall in this case. Then click on send Campaign to Checked.

It will now determine cost, and If you don't have enough points and money in their system, it will bring to you a page where you add just enough points and money to cover expenses.

Make your selections, agree to conditions, click through billing address and info screens, and you will come to payment type, enter c.c. information, once this is done, it dumps you back to the main screen. You have enough to send for this month, but now you have to start all over again.

Go back to Contacts, Find a Contact. Go back and redo from the first paragraph on down of this tutorial labeled: FINDING CONTACTS:

This time you will have enough money to send and they will send out. You will be given no notification anything happened. Now go to Cards > Card History and click Search, as todays date is already selected. If all is well you will see all the names with Status of Pending or Created. That's it, see you next month...LOL..

61. A Fix for Windows 7 Weather Gadget - Cannot Connect to Server

Navigate to this path:

C:\Users\USERNAME\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows Live\Services\Cache\config.xml

Open the file with notepad and change the update intervals from 60 to 45 and 30 to 15 at the top and bottom of the file. Save the changes. If the Server Connection Error reappears just try saving the file again. Make sure sidebar.exe is not blocked in your firewall.

62. Change Google Chrome Bookmark Manager back to the one that works.

1-Open Chrome Browser

2-Copy this string into the browser window and hit Enter:    chrome://flags/#enhanced-bookmarks-experiment

3-It will appear at the top of the screen highlighted in yellow, click the drop down arrow and select Disable

4-When you are done, you must restart the browser to implement the change.

5-Congratulations, you now have a usable Bookmark Manager again.

63. Use DNSCrypt to prevent your DNS requests from being hijacked.

1-Download these 3 files:

Latest DNSCrypt for Windows
Latest DNSCrypt Server List.
Latest DNSCrypt Windows GUI Client

2-I suggest you copy all the files of the extracted 1st download sub-folder containing dnscrypt-proxy.exe to a new folder somewhere else called DNSCrypt. Now from the 2nd download, copy the dnscrypt-resolvers.csv file into your newly created DNSCrypt folder. From the 3rd download, find and copy the dnscrypt-winclient.exe file into your new DNSCrypt folder.

3-Once you have all the correct files from each of the 3 downloads in the same new folder, you may start using DNSCrypt by selecting the dnscrypt-winclient.exe file and running it as Administrator.

If all is well, you will see a small program window appear with 4 tabs. On the 1st tab NICs, select the network adapter you are using to connect to the internet. Once you do this, is inserted into your DNS IP Address on your adapter, so that all requests are directed through this program.

Next click the Config Tab and click the drop down under Select Provider to pick a DNSCrypt server you would like to use.

Now you can click Start, or Install as Service. I prefer Install as Service because if the program window is accidently closed, it still works.

4-This is an alternate Windows GUI Interface download here: DNSCrypt Windows Service Manager and place this file in the same DNSCrypt folder. You will want to create a shortcut on your desktop to use this file: dnscrypt-winservicemgr.exe

5-Here is a list of the latest DNS servers and their info: Opennic Project DNS Server List

Fusl's OpenNIC Tier 2 Provider List

D0wn Opennic OpenNIC Tier 2 Provider List

6-Once you have it set up and running, use this site to determine where your DNS Requests are actually going.    Testing Site for DNS Leaks

7-For more information, here is the home page for the DNS Crypt Project

8-Remember, it must be run with admin permissions, and is best to install as a service.

To completely stop using it, after stopping the Service be sure to uncheck the network adapter to remove the loopback address it inserts into the network adapter DNS field.

9-If you suddenly find you can't browse the web, it's likely the DNSCrypt Server you selected is down. Simply bring up the DNSCrypt Windows Service Manager, click Uninstall Service or Stop, select another one, and click Intall Service or Start. It may take 10 seconds for these changes to go into effect.

If you just click Uninstall Service or Stop, you will not have DNS because the loopback address is still inserted into the network adapter, uncheck the network adapter under the NIC's tab to disable the program.

64. How to Permanently Fix the Windows 7 Weather Gadget Update Problem.

Unfortunately, all the fixes for the Microsoft Windows 7 Gadgets only last a few days.

The best solution I've found is to use the MSN 2.0 Weather Gadget

Download Link for MSN 2.0 Weather Gadget

65. How to send an email notification from Windows Task Scheduler using an external SMTP mail server such as

If you have tried to use an external email server to send notifications from Windows Task Scheduler, you'll quickly discover it is only set up to work with internal Exchange Servers.

To get around this problem, use

SendEmail a free, open source command line utility that allows you to send through the external email smtp server of your choice, and also supports TLS.

Should the SendEmail website or link become unavailable, the zip file is also available here: SendEmail Files

Here is the option string used to send through gmail:

-f -t -u Email Subject -m Email Message in Body -s -xu -xp senderspassword -o tls=yes -cc -bcc -a report.txt

Note: Google Mail will initially block the use of this email sending program due to it using less secure logon protocols (2009). Go to the sending gmail account, find that notification email, and select the choice to allow sending using a less secure protocol.

66. How to fix when you left click with mouse and it selects multiple items when only one was selected.

Hold down the Shift Key and press both Left and Right Arrow keys simultaneously.

  Your IP Address

Great Deal $$$


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